>

PORPE (PREDICT, ORGANISE, REHEARSE, PRACTICE, EVALUATE) IN READING



PORPE (PREDICT, ORGANISE, REHEARSE, PRACTICE, EVALUATE) IN READING
Definition of Porpe (Predict, Organise, Rehearse, Practice, Evaluate)
According to  Simpson (1984) PORPE is a study strategy that can be used in any content area course that uses the essay exam to measure  learning or any test format that encourages higher levels of thinking such as synthesis, application, and evaluation. Before examining the specific ways in which PORPE can be used in the content area classroom, the rationale and steps of PORPE will be discussed.
PORPE is an approach to studying textbook materials in which you create and answer essay questions. It can be a time-consuming process, but it is an excellent tool for preparing for essay exams.
Based on  Jennings. et. al (2001: 268-26) PORPE is a writing strategy useful for studying and learning content from your textbook reading assignments. The PORPE strategy is especially useful for test preparation. PORPE is an acronym that stands for the following 5 steps: Predict, Organize, Rehearse, Practice, and Evaluate.


Step of Porpe (Predict, Organize, Rehearse, Practice, Evaluate)
According to  Simpson (1984) The five steps of PORPE operationalize  the cognitive and metacognitive processes that effective readers engage in to understand and subsequently learn content area material. Baker and Brown (1984) have described effective readers as those who: (a) clarify the purposes of reading (understanding both the explicit and implicit task demands), (b) identify the important aspects of a message, (c) focus attention on the major content rather than the trivia, (d) monitor ongoing activities to determine whether comprehension is occurring, (e) engage in self-questioning to determine whether goals are being achieved, and (f) take corrective action when failures in understanding are determined.
With the first step, Predict, students generate higher level essay questions that cover the content to be mastered and call for organized essay responses. By posing several general or higher order essay questions that ask for a synthesis and discussion, a comparison and contrast, or an evaluation  of the key concepts from a unit of study, students are stimulated to process the text in a more active or elaborative manner as they read and study (Bean, Readence, & Baldwin, 2007).
The second step of PORPE,  Organize, involves students in constructing the information that will answer the self-predicted essay questions. In constructing, students build  internal connections  among ideas so that information becomes reorganized into a coherent structure (Cook & Mayer, 1983). For each predicted essay question, students outline their answers in their own words or formalize them in a map or chart.
The third step of PORPE, Rehearse, engages students in the active recitation and self-testing of the key ideas recorded in their maps, charts, or outlines. In a sense, students are verbally answering their self-predicted essay questions so that the key ideas can become transferred to working memory.
The fourth step of PORPE,  Practice, is the validation  step of learning because students must write from recall the answers to their self-predicted essay questions in some public and observable form. They are involved in what Vygotsky (1962: 100) aptly calls the “deliberate structuring of the web of meaning” . This process of writing can lead students from passive and literal-minded responses to higher levels of thinking and reasoning such as analysis and synthesis (Langer, 2000).
The final step of PORPE, Evaluate, requires students to use their writing in order to validate whether they have created a meaningful text that demonstrates their understanding of the key ideas and to evaluate  their text as another reader, such as the content area teacher, might. To facilitate  this monitoring and evaluating, students are given a checklist that guides them in determining the completeness, accuracy, and appropriateness of their written  product in terms of the original task, the self-predicted essay question. Hence, the students’ essays written in step four, Practice, provide them a specific and immediate feedback and reinforcement to their own learning and understanding

Postingan terkait:

Belum ada tanggapan untuk "PORPE (PREDICT, ORGANISE, REHEARSE, PRACTICE, EVALUATE) IN READING"