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The Concepts of Top Down and Bottom up processing


The Concepts of Top Down and Bottom up processing
1.      Definition of Top Down Process.
            The definition of Top Down processing are:
a.       Top-Down processing strategy is evoked from a bank of prior knowledge and global expectation and other background information that the listener brings to the text. Top-Down Processing is more concerned with the activation of schemata, deriving meaning, global understanding, and interpretation of the text
b.      Top-Down processing strategy is activating prior knowledge to make prediction about the text  top-down processing is pre-listening activity which emphasizes to how activate the students prior knowledge.
c.       Top-Down processing utilizes internal, high-level models of the acoustic environment and prior knowledge of the properties and dependencies of the object in it. In this approach information also flows top-down: a sensing system collects evidence that would either justify or cause a change in an internal world model and in the state of the object in it.  This approach is double- called prediction-driven processing, because it is strongly dependent on the prediction of the abstracted internal model, and on prior knowledge of the sounds sources
 
2.      Definition of Bottom up processing:
a.      Bottom up processing on the other hand refers to deriving the meaning of the massage based on the incoming language data, from sounds to words, to grammatical relationship, to meaning
b.      Bottom up processing on the other hand, is text based on which the listener realize on the language in the massage that is the combination of sounds, words, and grammar that creates meaning
c.      Bottom up processing refers to deriving the meaning of the text based on incoming language data, sounds, and grammar relationship to meaning

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