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The Use of Problem Based Learning to Improve The students' Speaking Ability


CHATER I
INTRODUCTION OF THE RESEARCH

This chapter presents the background of the study. This chapter also includes research questions, aims of the study, scope of the study, significance, clarification of terms and paper organization.
A.    Background
Laidlaw, (2006) state that language is a tool of communication. Language can be a medium for giving information and it reflecting on various things as well. Speaking is so important in acquiring and using a language, and language-competence covers so many aspects. Phonetics, both theory and practice constitute the basis of speaking above. Speaking is a tool of communication that very easy to understand meaning if the speaking is smooth, but if the speaking is disjointed and mispronounced, others might not understand the meaning. It is analogous to a fish out of water. Pronunciation is the foundation of speaking. Good pronunciation may make the communication easier and more relaxed and thus more successful, but poor pronunciation can never facilitate effective communication. If they didn't know how to pronounce each word or sentence in the right way, this was sure to lead to a failure of communication
English has been introduced in indonesia since elementary school. Partly, it is because of the rapidly developing technology of the English speaking countries and the fact that there are 300 million native speaker of english and over 250 million of non-native speakers who use english in the world (Broughton et al, 1980). The second reason is that the assumption that younger learners have advantages in learning second language more successfully than adult, Hence, indonesian primary students need to master speaking English.
To master speaking English, those students need to have an opportunity to use the language actively. Children can be active when they have teh opportunities in practicing the language with other. Orther people, Vygotsky (1962) cited in Cameron (2001) stated, play important roles in helping children to learn, bringing objects and ideas to their attention, talking while playing and about playing, reading stories, and asking questions. Children learn by interacting with other people through speaking, therefore, interaction is essential for children in learning English.
Children need to interact both with their teacher and their classmates. Through interacting with their teacher and classmates, students would possibly get feedbacks. Feedbacks are essential in learning because it lets students know what has been learned and what has not yet been understood and it also possibly gives students motivation (wragg, 2001). However, many indonesian teachers tend to give feedback in discouraging way such as pointing out mistakes in front of the classroom. Therefore, when students interact with their teacher, many indonesian students are afraid or shy to say words in English. When students speak in front of the class, they have a feeling of being judged by their teacher. Therefore????
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