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the Application of Top Down and Bottom up processing in Teaching Listening Comprehension (Classroom Action Research)



CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A.    Background
            English is one of the language in the world that has an important role for communication. It has used as an international language in all over the world. It is important for us to learn it. English is a compulsory subject in both public and private school that function as a means of the advancing student in, science, Technology and culture. In Indonesia, English is taught from junior high school up to university. Levels even taught it also taught to some elementary school as an optional subject.
There are four skill taught in English subject namely: Speaking, Writing, Reading and Listening.  Ji Lingzu (2003:3) state that listening there are also two simultaneous and complementary ways of processing a text. In top down processing, learners rely on their linguistic knowledge to recognize linguistic elements: vowels, consonants, word, sentences to do the construction of meaning.
 Teacher often think that learners hear every sounds, or sentences before they understand the general meaning of the passage. However, in practice they often adopt a top-down approach to predict the probable theme and then move to the bottom-up approach to check their understanding.
 Top-Down processing strategy is more concerned with the activation of schemata, deriving meaning, global understanding of a text. Bottom-up  processing  typically focuses on sound, word, intonation, grammatical structure and other components of spoken language. (Nunan,P: 1989)   
Top-Down processing utilizes internal, high-level of the acoustic environment and prior knowledge of properties and dependencies of the object in it. This approach is double-called prediction-driven processing, because it is strongly depending on the prediction of an abstracted on internal model and on the prior knowledge of the sound source. (Ellis: 1996). Bottom up processing on the other hand, is text based on which the listener realize on the language in the massage that is the combination of sounds, words and grammar that creates meaning “(Goa,2003: 4). In other word words  bottom up processing refers to driving the meaning of the text based????????????????????????
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