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Applying Top-Down processing strategy in improving the students’ listening comprehension (A Classroom Action Research)



CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
A.    Background
            English is one of the languages in the world that has an important role for communication. It has used as an international language in all over the world. It is important for us to learn it. English is a compulsory subject in both public and private school that function as a means of advancing students in science, Technology and culture. In Indonesia, English is taught from junior high school up to university. Levels even taught it also taught to some elementary school as an optional subject.
There are four skills taught in English subject namely: Speaking, Writing, Reading and Listening. Ji Lingzu (2003) State that listening there are also two simultaneous and complementary ways of processing a text. In Top-Down processing, learners rely on their linguistic knowledge to recognize linguistic elements: vowels, consonants, words, sentences to do the constructions of meaning.
Teacher often think that learners hear every sounds, words or sentences before they understand the general meaning of the passage. However, in practice, they often adopt a top-down approach to predict the probable theme and then move to the bottom-up approach to check their understanding. 
Top- Down processing strategy is more concerned with the activation of schemata, deriving meaning, global understanding, and interpretation of a text.  Bottom-Up processing typically focuses on sounds, words, intonation, grammatical structure and other components of spoken language.         (Nunan,P: 1989).
Top-Down processing utilizes internal, high-level of the acoustic environment and prior knowledge of properties and dependencies of the object in it. This approach is double-called prediction-driven processing, because it is strongly depending on the prediction of an abstracted on internal model and on the prior knowledge of the sounds source. ( Ellis: 1996).
According to Agus (1998). The purpose of listening and is to inform our selves about something we are interested in or challenge our knowledge on certain master .In other words, we will extend our experience of the world.  Listening as one of the four language skill is a part of oral and receptive skills. This is a very essential component in communication; because we cannot catch someone transmitted to us if we do not have good listening ability.
Some teachers think that listening is the easiest skill to teach, were as most students think it is the most difficult to improve. According Ramayanti   Rasyid S.Pd. (English teacher at SMP Muhammadiyah 5 Marison) that value average of students’ listening at class IX A is 4,8 while the standard curriculum is 7.0. Therefore, the researcher wants to solve this??????????????????????????????????????
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