Improving the Students’ Ability to Write Paragraph by Using Flowchart (classroom action research)

            This chapter deals with background, problem statement, objective, significance, and scope of the research.
A.    Background
English language has a central role in developing intellectual, social, and emotional competence to students. It is also an important tool in learning and developing sciences, technology, and art. Language learning is expected to help students to recognize themselves, their culture and another culture. Besides, it also helps students to express their idea, thought, and feeling. In addition, they are able to participate in society and even to find and also use their analectic and imaginative ability.
In the competence based curriculum, the students are expected to be able to communicate. The ability to communicate is the ability to understand and produce discourse of which it can be realized in four language skills, namely listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Moreover those four skills should be applied in real life. Hence, English subject needs to develop those skills. In order that, the students are able to communicate and make discourse in English language in certain literacy level.
Writing is one of the language skills that play an important role in human communication. The important of writing is coming to be more and more recognized. It is through the written mark that links with the outside word are formed.
There is no doubt that English writing is important as the other three-language skill. The ability to write is frequently demanded in many occasions in our life.  For many reasons writing skill is crucial to most people. Adelstein and Vipal (1980) express that in all subjects in our life or in all profession, the ability to write or express oneself clearly is essential basic for success. Writing is crucial meaning of human communication. It is used to communicate with other people in society and to express our feeling and opinions. Writing means of both communication and self expression.
Heaton in Noni (1984:126) states that many students still encounter difficulties in writing because it is complex and difficult. In studying English?????????????

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