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THE USE OF LITERACY APPROACH TO TEACH RECOUNT TEXT TO THE FIRST GRADE OF SMA N I XXXX


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1    General Background of the Study 
English is an international language. Therefore, it has a very crucial role in the world communication. People tend to use it to communicate to one another when communicating with other nations, such as: when doing transaction (order or request), looking for a  job, or going a board. Communication can be divided into two forms, oral and in writing.  To know the differences between the oral and in writing Eggins (1994: 57) suggests that:  “The characteristics of oral communication are flexible, turn taking organization, context dependent, dynamic structure (interactive staging, open ended), spontaneity phenomena (hesitations; interruptions; incomplete clauses), everyday lexis, non-standard grammar,  grammatical complexity and lexically sprace and the characteristics of writing communication are lexically densed, monologic organization, context independent, synoptic structure (rhetorical staging; losed; finite), “final draft”  (polished; indications of earlier drafts removed), “prestige” lexis, standard grammar, and grammatical simplicity.”  
Oral communication is easier because it rarely uses standard grammar. People can imitate speaking when they get interaction everyday in their life. In relation to the characteristics of spoken language, Derewianka (1990: 29) states that oral language is mostly used in face to face situations. The examples of oral communication can be found when we watch TV, listen to radio or talk to someone. 
On the contrary, communication in writing should use standard grammar. We can find examples of written language in public places such as, announcement, news, pamphlet, advertisements, etc. In nowadays life people get involved with a lot of English written language, like English notice in public places. (No  Parking, No Smoking, Enter, In, Out, Sale, Discount, Music Lounge, ATM (Automatic Teller Machine, etc). Therefore, the abilities to write and read are very important. In other words people should be literate. Talking about communication, we may find the term. Kern (2000: 16-17) defines literacy as follows:  “Literacy is the use of socially, historically, and culturally-situated practices of creating and interpreting  meaning through texts. It  entails at least a tacit awareness of the relationship between textual conventions and  their contexts of use and, ideally, the ability to reflect critically on those relationships. Because it is purpose-sensitive, literacy is dynamic-not  static- and variable across within discourse communities and cultures. It draws on a wide range of cognitive abilities, on knowledge of written and spoken language, on knowledge of genres, and on cultural knowledge.”
In the past, literacy is known as just the ability to read and write something. Now, literacy consists of oracy (spoken)  and literacy (written) itself. It has communication to connect each other in cultural and situation in our society. By literacy, we can communicate with our abilities in our surrounding.  In Global era, literacy in English has important role in education. For English teachers, globalization has given the big challenge to teach their students to survive in modern society life. Now English education has used literacy approach, which prepares their students to participate and create English texts. So,??????????????????????

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