The Students’ Active and Passive Voice Achievement Through Contra-Tricentric Method


A.    Background
English as one of the international languages where almost all of the countries entire the world learn and use it, makes English as the most popular language in the world, not only as the second language but also as a foreign language. Indonesia is one of the countries where English as the foreign language had developed it as one of the optional subjects for high school since in 1994 curriculum, while in 2004 curriculum, it had been emphasized about the position of English in curriculum framework as the local content (Jamilah, S: 2008). It means that in educational field, Indonesia has developed English just more fifteen years, both in curriculum framework as in document and in practical in the classroom.
In Indonesian educational field nowadays, English had been developed in variety of ways. Many kinds of models and teaching method had been presented in the class to make English more fun to be  learnt.Especially for grammar class, where English looks very difficult with formula and rules, it needs to apply attractive methods in teaching and learning process in the classroom. The traditional grammar method in teaching English begins to be left and comes to the more improved methods. Furthermore, English does not only focus on the language learning but more to the language use. 
Teaching English will be concerned with the capability of the student to produce what they have learnt, than just become the competence that might be student doesn’t know how to apply it. The learning process should bring students to the real situation in their nearest environment, such their experience. It will more encourage the student to find the motivation for them to produce easily in their active skills, both in speaking and writing. The two productive skills will show the competence to what students have learnt.
Besides bring them to the real situation, student-centered approach is essential be implemented in our teaching method nowadays. To conduct this, the teacher should know first about the students prefer in learning. The students themselves construct their own way to learn, the teacher just as a motivator and facilitator. The role of the teacher in the classroom should be less dominated. They should give autonomy to the students to determine their own style in learning (Rogers, L: 2009).
One more important things, in teaching English as a foreign language is the role of textbook. In this case, the teaching process should not be bound by the textbook. Because the teacher will give direct experience in students learning process, so that after knowing the concept from teacher demonstration, the student will get the drill in their real life situation. We do not bring the students to the exercises that can make them just imagine, but they should find the application of what they have learnt in their environment.
Those three items had been applied in China in one teaching method namely, Contra-Tricentric Method. This kind of method moves away from the Tricentric Method, where the teacher seems the only prior in the classroom, the role of textbook is very central in teaching and learning process, and classroom situation is the only activity for exercises.
Contra-Tricentric method associates that the teacher’s less dominating in the classroom, the function of textbook less central, and out of classroom situation comes to the classroom situation (Sun, C.,: 2001). In other word, Contra-Tricentric accumulates the student-centered, non textbook learning, and??????????????????????????????????????????????


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