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AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ ERRORS IN PRONOUNCING ENGLISH VOWELS


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
 1.1 Background of the Study
Every human being has a language. It is used to convey messages to other people and without a language the people will find it difficult to communicate and express their ideas, thought and wishes. According to Finocchiaro (1974: 3), “Language is a system of arbitrary, vocal symbols, which permit all people in a given culture, or other people who have  learned the system of that culture, to communicate or to interact.”
 In Indonesia, people  speak Indonesian as their second language to communicate with anyone (Indonesian) whatever his first  language he speaks (Javanese, Madurese, Sundanese, etc), but when they want to speak to other people coming from other countries, they cannot use Indonesian as a means of communication. English is a way to  solve the miscommunication between Indonesian and people from other countries since English is used as an international language.
The Indonesian government has chosen English as the first foreign language. It means that it is taught in all educational institutions at all levels from elementary school up to university. Besides, as stated above English is used as lingua franca, as it is an international language used in many countries throughout the world. For this reason, millions of Indonesian students want to learn English in order to be able to speak English. When learning a new language, anyone studies the components of language.
Language has three major components including phonology, vocabulary, and grammar (Nasr, 1980: 2). Language is primarily spoken; therefore the sounds are very important. In this relation, phonology takes an important role. According to Ramelan (1994: 1), phonology is the study of phones or speech sounds. There are two studies of phonology, phonetics and phonemics. Phonemics is the study of speech sounds with a view to finding out the significant units of sounds in a given language. Phonetics is the study of speech sounds as sounds, without regard to their function as signalling units of language.
Phonetics is divided into two kinds, namely Articulatory Phonetics and Acoustic Phonetics. Articulatory phonetics studies speech sounds from the point of view of their ways of production by the speech organs. Articulatory phonetics explains the suprasegmental and segmental features. Suprasegmental features, which refer to such feature as stress, pitch, length, intonation, and other features, always accompany the production of segmental. Segmental features refer to sound units arranged in a sequential order. Segmental features consist of vowels and consonants, diphthongs and their distribution.
Pronunciation plays an important role  in learning a second or a foreign language. Although students have English subject at school, most of them often make errors, for example: in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The writer explained before that language has three major components including phonology, vocabulary, and grammar. Among  these components, phonology takes an important role. Automatically, phonology  relates with pronunciation. So, the?????????????????????????????????????

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