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STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN PRONOUNCING ENGLISH FRICATIVES


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

This chapter contains general background of the study, reasons for choosing the topic, statements of  the problems, objectives of the study, significance of the study, limitation of the problems, and organization of the study.
 1.1. General Background of the Study
Human being is created as a social creature. S/he cannot live by her/himself. S/he needs other people’s help in order to live. Therefore, s/he uses a language to convey her/his messages and to express her/his feelings, ideas, opinions, thoughts, and wishes. S/he does not have to study hard in order to speak a language perfectly.
There are two major functions of language use i.e. interactional function and transactional function. Interactional function has to do with how humans use language to interact with each other, socially or emotionally; how they indicate friendliness, cooperation, or hostility, or annoyance, pain or pleasure. The transactional  function has to do with how humans use their linguistic abilities to communicate  knowledge, skills, and information. (Yule, 1985:5) Even a baby has his own language to convey her/his desires; babbling and cooing. These are the results of how a baby imitates sounds around him. A healthy baby is able to hear sounds around her/him and imitate them. Years later s/he can speak his mother tongue perfectly.
There are two forms of language, the spoken and the written form. The spoken form is regarded as the primary language. Someone will still be able to use a language without knowing the writing system of the language.  There are many languages used in the world. It is impossible to cooperate with other countries without understanding their culture  and language. Among many major languages in the world, English  is considered as an international language. Harmer (1983:1) identified English as a lingua franca, that is: “A language widely adopted for  communication between two speakers \whose native languages are different from each other and where one or both speakers are using it as a second language.”
English is used in many sectors of international affairs such as economy, education, politics, science, etc. Many  books, magazines, newspapers, etc from other countries are written in English. Realizing the importance of English, it is taught in many countries in the world, including Indonesia.
In Indonesia, English has been taught since the proclamation of Indonesia’s independence. Years ago, only the language of the rulers were taught in schools. Now, English is taught in many institutions either formal or informal. It is taught for six years as a compulsory subject from Junior High School up to Senior High School and it is also taught for some semesters at university.
According to the 1995 English curriculum  for Elementary School, it is taught in Elementary School as a local content. According to the 1994 Basic Curriculum Outline, English teaching in Indonesia, covers the four basic skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing (Depdikbud, 1994:108). However, teaching  learning English needs a???????????????/

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