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DESCRIPTIVE QUALITATUVE WORD, ABOVE WORD AND GRAMMATICAL EQUIVALENCE IN THE TRANSLATION OF J.K. ROWLING’S NOVEL ENTITLED “HARRY POTTER AND THE GOBLET OF FIRE”


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of The Study
Translation means the activity of translating. Translating means to change something spoken or especially written  into another language.  The problems involved in the analysis in the translation process have attracted the curiosity and interest of the linguist, psycholinguist, and the language teacher, and also the translator as the connected agent. 
A linguistic definition of translation has been proposed, and concepts as equivalence, correspondence, transference, and translation  shift, have been discussed in many lectures. From a linguistic viewpoint, translation has been defined as the replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent material in another language  (TL).
A central task of translation theory is that of defining nature and condition of translation equivalence. Translators have a big role in producing a translation product most of  which are very useful both for science and entertainment. They give an important contribution to the country and world. For that reason, translators must understand their job in producing a great translation product. 
They have to know what translating actually is. Eugene A. Nida and Charles R Taber say in their book, The Theory and Practice of Translation that translating  consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural  equivalent of the source  language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style. Since meanings are concepts, a translator must translate the concept from the SL to TL. In this point, analysis is needed to convey the messages from the source text to the target text naturally.
The analysis of translation has also become the focus of the students of the English Department to prepare them to be good and professional translators. They have to know actually what they translate and how they translate. Consequently, they have to know several strategies of translating.
As quoted by Baker in In Other Words Firth (1957:197) says that sometimes translators know they cross over but do not know by what sort of bridge. They often re-cross by a different bridge to check up again. Sometimes they fall over the parapet into limbo.
The study of translation has been dominated, and to a degree still is, by the debate about its status as  an art or a science. The linguist inevitably approaches translation from a scientific point of view. But, as an art, translation will be very important because the translator has to make the readers enjoy in reading the text. Sometimes, the product of translation itself is not enjoyable to the reader because still there are some mistakes such as many odd sentences in the target text. Translation quality assessment proceeds according to the lordly, but???????????????

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