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THE USE OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING TYPE NUMBERED HEADS TOGETHER TO INCREASE STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN READING COMPREHENSION (QUASI EXPERIMENTAL)


CHAPTER I
                                       INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with background, problem statement, objective of the research, significance of the research, and scope of the research.
A.    Background
English is a language that is used as a lingua franca by many countries. It plays an important role as a connector for different countries to cooperate in various sectors, such as education, economy, politics, tourism, etc. Crystal in Coury (2001) emphasizes that English is now the dominant or official language in over 60 countries and is represented in every continent. Most of the scientific, technological and academic information in the world is expressed in English and over 80% of all the information stored in electronic retrieval systems is in English. 
English also takes a large part in world written references. Alwasilah in Yani (2009), states that at least 60% of scientific books are written in English. Therefore, comprehending English becomes a necessary thing today to expand social intercourse and to reach achievement in any field of study and occupation.
            Reading is one skill that has to be mastered in order to comprehend English. By reading, people can get a lot of information and can enrich their insight. Book, magazine, and newspaper, are some reading materials which contain important knowledge and information.
Considering that reading is an important part in comprehending English, people are encouraged to grow their reading habit from the early ages, such as school ages. Especially in school, there are a lot of techniques applied by the teachers in teaching reading. One point that has to be concerned at, is, the development of students’ reading ability will depend on how effective the teachers’ instructions influence the students in the reading class. Himes (2007) states that there a lot of ideas to help students improve their reading comprehension if the people know how, because among those ideas, some work, some do not, and some are best used in conjunction with others. In the beginning, it is important to understand which methods are proved as the effective methods through research.
Cooperative learning is a method which is believed as an effective method in teaching. A number of experts believe that cooperative learning can give positive effect in increasing students’ achievement. Slavin in Biehler/Snowman (1997) reports ???????????????????

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