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dictogloss technique

The “dictogloss” (Wajnryb, 1990) has been proposed as a procedure that encourages
students to reflect on their own output. Kowal and Swain (1997) and Swain (1998) report
on the dictogloss technique and studies that have been conducted with 8th
 grade French
immersion learners.

 Steps:
•  Model the steps of the process with students prior to having them co-construct a
dictogloss on their own.
•  Create a short passage that embeds a particular grammatical form you wish to
emphasize.  It should be a form that students know well but that is often produced
inaccurately by students.  Try to incorporate a majority of vocabulary that students know.
•  Review difficult or possibly unknown vocabulary that appears in the dictogloss.
•  Provide a short (3-5 min.) review lesson on the grammatical form being emphasized.
•  Read the dictogloss through once at a normal speed, asking students to listen
carefully.
•  Read the dictogloss a second time, and encourage students to jot down notes.
•  Have pairs of students work together for approximately 20-25 minutes to
reconstruct the dictogloss, reminding students that they should try to write their
text so that it will be as close to the original as possible in grammar and content. 
Kowal told her students that the original sense of each sentence needed to be
present and the reconstructed sentences had to be as grammatically accurate as
the students could manage, but the words and phrases didn’t have to be identical to
the ones in the original passage.  During this time students form hypotheses and
test them, using available resources such as dictionaries and verb reference books. 
The activity should also encourage noticing and, ideally, metatalk.
•  Select at least one student example and use it to engage in whole-class discussion
with particular focus on the grammatical form emphasized.  The students’ co-constructed texts should be compared with the original dictogloss.

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