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Strategies-based instruction in speaking

Strategies-based instruction is a learner-centered approach to teaching that has two
major components: (1) students are explicitly taught how, when, and why strategies can
be used to facilitate language learning and language use tasks, and (2) strategies are
integrated into everyday class materials, and may be explicitly or implicitly embedded
into the language tasks. The first of these components has often stood alone as the
approach when strategies are included in the language classroom. The field has referred
to this approach as "strategy training," "strategies instruction," or "learner training" (cf.
Chamot & Rubin 1994:771, with regard to these three terms). In a typical classroom
strategy training situation, the teachers describe, model, and give examples of
potentially useful strategies; they elicit additional examples from students based on the
students' own learning experiences; they lead small-group/whole class discussions
about strategies (e.g., the rationale behind strategy use, planning an approach to a
specific activity, evaluating the effectiveness of chosen strategies); and they encourage
their students to experiment with a broad range of strategies.

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