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The use of Role, Audience, Format, Topic (RAFT) in improving the English reading comprehension




CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A.      Background
English is an international tool of communication. It is used to communicate with each other by people from different countries all over the world. English plays an important role because it is a tool of communication in all aspects in most of the part of the world, whether in social in interaction, science technology, politics, economics, cultural, and education. It is intended to enable the students to communicate and express their ideas in English and have a good command in reading comprehend text book and information written in English for the shake of national development in the field of education.
In learning English there are four skills that should be mastered by the students, they are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. These skills always become the target of the final learning objectives. In other words, the four language skills are the result of a long process of learning; they are the application of the knowledge of language that the learners get during process.
Reading is one important aspect in learning English. Reading itself is complex and complicated process because it involves the internal and external factors of students. The internal factors are everything from the students which can be taught; as a result of an interaction in reading process external factors are all the factors from outside of the students (Nunan, in Ilvirah, 2010:2).

Mc Worther, in Ilvirah (2010:2) says that reading is an active process of identifying important ideas, comparing, evaluating and applying them; therefore in reading paragraph we have to try to comprehend. Without comprehending the paragraph, it will be very difficult to understand what we have read or what the writer means in reading material. In relation to the condition of the teaching of English reading comprehension faced by secondary school students. The students, who come to English classes, should be given sufficient opportunities to use their knowledge of language.
Based on the explanation above, the writer is interested to observe the RAFT (Role Audience, Format, Topic) strategy in learning and teaching, because it offers students a creative outlet for demonstrating understanding (Santa, 1988:10) it is flexible post reading strategy that helps students to analyze and reflect upon their reading through personal writing. Based on suggestion provided by the teacher or generated by the class, student choose a role, an audience a format, and a topic on which to write in response to their reading, concerning with the explanation above, the writer is interested in conducting a research improving reading comprehension through RAFT strategy.
The use of Role, Audience, Format, Topic (RAFT) in improving the English reading comprehension at the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Wilayah Ratulangi Makassar 2010-2011 academic year.
B.       Problem Statement
Based on the background above, the writer formulated research questions:
1.      How is the students’ reading improvement of literal comprehension through Role, Audience, Format, Topic (RAFT) strategy at the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Wilayah Ratulangi Makassar?
2.      How is the students’ reading improvement of interpretative comprehension through Role, Audience, Format, Topic (RAFT) strategy at the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Wilayah Ratulangi Makassar?

C.      Objective of the Research
Based on the problem statement, the objective of the research is to find out:
1.      The students’ reading improvement of literal comprehension through Role, Audience, Format, Topic (RAFT) strategy at the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Wilayah Ratulangi Makassar.
2.   The students’ reading improvement of interpretative comprehension through Role, Audience, Format, Topic (RAFT) strategy at the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Wilayah Ratulangi Makassar.

D.    Significance of the Research
1.      This research aims to know students’ ability in reading comprehension by using the RAFT strategy in learning reading.
2.      The teaching comprehension by using RAFT strategy in effective in improving the students reading comprehension ability or not.
3.      The attitude of the second year at SMA Muhammadiyah Wilayah Ratulangi Makassar toward the use of RAFT strategy in teaching reading comprehension.

E.     Scope of the Research
                  The scope of the research is restricted to find out the students ability to comprehend the reading during the teaching and learning of Role, Audience, Format, Topic (RAFT), it is applied at the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Wilayah Ratulangi Makassar to answer question from reading.
                  The research is restricted to improve the students’ Reading comprehension through Role, Audience, Format, Topic (RAFT) strategy which focuses on Literal comprehension (the main ideas and supporting idea) and intrepretative comprehension (Taking Notes conclusion and Cause-Effect Relationship) of the text at the XI class of SMA Muhammadiyah Wilayah Ratulangi Makassar.

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