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“Using story mapping strategy to improve the students’ reading comprehension"


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


A.      Background
The expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experienced, explained, and shared. which is used to convey people’s idea to the mind of the people. Through language, we can express our feeling, willingness and ideas. We use language as key to learn science and technology such as Linguistics, Sociology, Medicines, Economics, etc. In it is proportion, English as an international language, certainly many people in the world intend to learn it, including the Indonesian people, especially students in the junior high school, senior high school, and the university. Furthermore, we should realize that we are in the technological era; certainly, we have commitment that the new technology comes from the western countries that most of them are written in English.
Today, people live in an information era. There a lot of information, they should know, and they should find many kinds of information sources that are written in English. Thus to get information, people should read many kinds of information. Reading is a source of getting information. No one can get much information without reading. Actually, reading is the easiest and the cheapest way to get information, because it can help to know the simple information to the more complex one. In addition, the main important thing that the readers should have the ability to comprehend what they have read. Carrillo (1976:2) states that reading is a combination of mechanics, understanding, retention, and use. In this broadest of three views, the reader should be able not only to perform the mechanics and comprehend  the meaning of the words, but to critically evaluate the ideas expressed and apply them to his or her situation.
Reading is something that must be done by all students who are studying language. Reading is considered as one of important skill, which has to be learn because it can influent the other language skills.
In reading text, students often find some difficult word that they do not know its meaning. In order to, before we translate the word, we must know or understand through comprehension so that they can describe their ideas or can give conclusion from English reading text through their comprehension.    
The expand times and technology advance bring the positive impact in increasing educational in teaching and learning process, so that the teaching system always change into completing, particularly which related to their way of teaching.
Concerning with language learning and teaching, Pressley and Block (2002) also suggested that teachers can learn by using strategy, how the strategies work and become better able to teach them to their own students by applying the strategies to their own reading. Applying strategies to the teachers’ own reading not only helps the teacher become better prepared to provide Reading comprehension strategy instruction (CSI), but also demonstrates the potential for improvement that such strategies hold for their students. Pressley and Block (2002) also pointed out that comprehension instruction involves a complex and long-term commitment to teach students the necessary strategies and to provide them with sufficient practice to use the strategies easily and the habits to use them frequently.
Based on English language teaching and learning at SMPN 2 Maros especially for reading skill, Students difficult to understand and low of comprehension, even most of them do not interest in reading. Thus, because they found many new words, so they also do not know the elements of the story and do not get what the story means. Besides that, the English teacher in that school taught only focusing on Curriculums of KTSP and KBK (kurikulum berbasis kompetensi) without using any learning method or strategy in teaching to improve students’ comprehension.
Related to the statement above, the writer interest to do this research by using story mapping as a strategy in teaching. The method shows us that teaching the plan of a story leads to improve comprehension. The structure or plan of narrative text is often referred to as a story grammar or graphic organizer. Graphic organizers are also sometimes referred to as knowledge maps, concept maps, story maps, cognitive organizers, advance organizers, or concept diagrams. Williams (2003) taught narrative structure to students with learning disabilities by having teachers lead a pre-reading discussion of the story topic followed by the teacher reading the story aloud, inserting various questions throughout the story. After reading the story, the teacher led a discussion of the main points and a reading of a summary of the story. The students then related the story theme to a standard format to link the story to more generalized people and situations using one of two generic questions: (a) (main character) should have (should not have)…and (b) we should (should not)... Finally, the students apply the story’s lesson to real life experience with two questions: (a) to whom would this theme apply? And (b) When would it apply?
Story mapping involves three basic elements are; setting, plot and theme. To facilities comprehension and memory of story, story mapping as one technique in this research. Story mapping is used as technique to solve students’ problem in reading. A story maps is a procedure for constructing visual displays of categories and relationship (Alexander in Massena 2008). Story mapping makes it easier for the students to understand a reading text. This technique also promotes cooperation and appreciation among the students. Actually, story mapping not only used in reading text, but also in history, in math and in science.
Considering the statement above, the writer would like to conduct a research under the title: “Using story mapping strategy to improve the students’ reading comprehension at the third grade of SMPN2 Maros.

B.       Problem Statement
In relation to the background mentioned above, the problem of the research can be formulated in the following question:
1.       How is the effectiveness of using story mapping to improve the students’ reading comprehension?
2.        How is the students’ reading comprehension improvement by using story mapping strategy?

C.      Objective of the Study
The objectives of the research are:
1.        To describe the student ability in reading comprehension by using story mapping.
2.        To find out whether or not story mapping can improve students’ reading comprehension at the third grade of SMPN2 Maros.
D.      Significance of the Study
The writer hopes that this research will advantageous to writer itself, the other researcher will continue this research to make complete it and the readers as useful information, especially for English teacher in learning reading comprehension by using story mapping at the third grade of SMPN2 Maros.

E.       Scope of the Study
This research is under the discipline of applied linguistics. This is limited to the use of story mapping. By which the student can improve their reading comprehension. The effectiveness here means the improvement of the student ability to understand the story or reading text between cycle I and cycle II.
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