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Classroom Action Research


  Classroom Action Research
According to Nunan  (1990:62), a classroom action research does not require the standard formalization of a research project with a literature search, hypothesis testing, treatment conditions, ect. Instead, it consists of seven basic steps to investigate a problem. They are as follows :
a.       After determining that there is a potential problem, survey what is happening
b.      Code the observation based on the problem and what was seen.
c.       Based on the coded information, determine one change that could impact the problem in a positive manner.
d.      Implement the change in the course /classroom.
e.       Observe the class/course (as in step 1) while implementing the change.
f.        Code the new observation(s) as in step 2.
g.      Finally, compare the coded sessions to determine the results of the change.
There are some definition of action research which stated by some experts, as follows ;
a.       Lewin (1946:10) described action research as “ a comparative research on the condition and effects of various form of social action” that uses “ a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action, and fact- finding about the result of the action.
b.      Jung (1990:144). Action research something called “practitioner research,” is a reflective investigation of a personal interest, problem or challenge.
c.       Kemmis and McTaggart (1998:310). Action research is a form of collaborative self- reflective inquiry undertaken by teachers to improve their own practices, their understanding of those practice , and the situation  in which those practices are called out.
d.      Tabachnic and Zeichner (1999:310 ). Action research is a systematic examination and collaborative analysis of the consequences of some classroom action.
e.       Bennett (1968:322). Action research as “doing something in an attempt to find answers for specific questions in students’ minds” which alludes to the use of a proper set of technique and procedures that are applicable to the individual students based upon practices used daily in science.



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